Międzykulturowa edukacja nieformalna na przykładzie działań polskich organizacji Nikitorowicz J. Edukacja regionalna i międzykulturowa. ROLA NAUCZYCIELA W EDUKACJI MIĘDZYKULTUROWEJ. Chapter (PDF J Nikitorowicz. Nikitorowicz, J.: Edukacja regionalna i międzykulturowa. J. Nikitorowicz, who classified and defined specific types of borderlands. According to the author, a cultural . Edukacja regionalna i międzykulturowa.
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There is a growing conviction that foreign language teaching should be deeply embedded in the cultural context, including introduction of the culture of a given language area and information about intercultural differences, since midzyklturowa the fact that in currently dominating communicative approach the key didactic objective niitorowicz the ability of efficient communication, the indisputable fact is the threat of the efficiency of the communication in the given language posed by the lack of so called intercultural competence.
It is defined as the ability to communicate with the members of different cultural circles and nations and the ability to build the bridges of agreement, in other words complex ability to manage oneself in the complicated reality of multilingual and multi-cultural contemporary world.
The objective of my paper is the reflection upon cultural problems on the ground of foreign languages, current issues of intercultural approach in the didactics of foreign languages, place and role of intercultural competence among the regoinalna of language teaching, as well as mutual relationship between cultural and communicative competence, theoretical eduiacja and concepts miidzykulturowa the basis of practical solutions of intercultural teaching and emphasising the function of glottodidactics consisting in approaching the culture of the target language country and explaining intercultural differences, hence the outline of the problems of intercultural tendencies on the ground of contemporary glottodidactics.
The starting point of the discussion on glottodidactic aspects 1 of multiculturalism 2 should be the analysis of the development of methodical views, in which one has to notice a few turning-points concerning the goals of language midzykulrurowa and their significant influence on perception of the essence of contemporary teaching and learning of a foreign language. The first of them was establishing that the sub-systems of language are not the primary objective of the foreign language didactics, but language skills.
The other was taking notice of the functionality of a language, hence pointing out inkitorowicz through a statement we realise particular language activities, which within the framework of a discussion can occur in various configurations, usually in some subordinate dependencies in relation to dominating language activity, so adopting the communication competence 3 as the leading term.
The third one was emphasising the link between language and culture, and including in the communication process the variation of terms, norms and behaviours deriving from the cultural distinctness of the participants of this process allowing to find oneself in the communication situation with a representative of a different culture Myczko, miszykulturowa Without any doubt, perceiving interculturalism in foreign language teaching 4 has a specific dimension which results from close relationship between language and culture 5, because it constitutes the system serving the 1 About glottodidactic see: Dakowska, ; Dakowska, ; Grucza, ; Grucza, ; Grucza, ; Grucza, ; Grucza, Problems of multiculturality are discussed in a number of Polish publications such as: Stawna, Characteristics of the state of the research, bases and organisation mldzykulturowa the intercultural education in glottodidactics are presented by M.
Torenc, Issues of the relationship between language and culture and bases of intercultural communication can be Copyright The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-learning This is why the lack of possibility of acquiring the language without taking into consideration socio-cultural context is emphasised after all language communication is often embedded in the situations which are defined by culture Myczko, It reflects the differences in the way of seeing the reality beyond the language, as well as patterns and norms of behaviour, Lachowicz Materials and Method For many years European glottodidactics has been postulating for joining the edukkacja of foreign language teaching with the presentation of the realities and culture which resulted in birth of a new glottodidactic subdiscipline called intercultural glottopedagogics, also known by the nikitoroowicz terms: Lack of a similar term relating to the edykacja of oriental languages and aspect of presenting oriental cultures and explanation of intercultural differences does not mean that teaching of all languages as well should not be deeply embedded in cultural context, since despite the fact that rsgionalna currently dominating communicative approach the basic didactic goal is the ability of efficient communication, the undisputable fact is the threat of the efficiency midzykulturosa communication in a given language by the lack of so called intercultural competence 7.
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It edukaja defined as the ability to communicate with the representatives of different cultural circles and nations and the ability to build the bridges regionalnaa agreement, in other words – complex ability to manage oneself in the complicated reality of multilingual and multi-cultural contemporary world.
Each of them had jikitorowicz the regionlna of the achievements of the earlier ones, enriching them with key assumptions of their contemporary psychology, pedagogy, didactics and cultural studies, so they often functioned parallelly and complemented one another.
The oldest of these, the cognitive approach also known as factographic was based on conveying the knowledge about the country of a given language with the emphasis on presentation of its history and so called high culture, which in relation to course midzykulturows meant edukxcja the cultural and realistic themes in the reading material included in subsequent lessons as the background for the presentation of introduced vocabulary or grammar, but not in the form of special complementary chapters which would not induce grammar or lexical progress.
Communication turn which has been present in foreign language teaching from s has significantly influenced midzykulrurowa change of the role of realities and culture in the process of the acquisition of foreign languages. The main goal of a new approach was the formation of the ability of using a foreign language in the same way as native speakers do, so the centre of gravity was transferred onto the development of communicative skills 9, while teaching regionslna realities and culture was according to this concept understood as yet another experience of the learners, which widened their mental horizons and helped them to understand the phenomena of daily culture.
Course books contained many authentic texts, plain facts had substituted the guidelines on how to react in the situations which the students might encounter in inter-personal contacts. Communicative approach integrated language teaching with learning about realities and culture, it was directed to the development of socio-linguist referred to in: Myczko, ; Komorowska, First communicative textbook of Polish is: Intercultural approach which was promoted until the second half of s moved forward the achievement of the above mentioned intercultural competence, which can be defined as midzykulutrowa complex of analytic and strategic skills in relationship nikiyorowicz the representatives of other nationalities.
Through the knowledge about other cultures and culturally conditioned forms of behaviour, through their unbiased analysis intercultural competence facilitates sensitizing in relation to culturally conditioned difference, as well as change of the existing attitudes and widens the possibility of interpretation and actions of a given individual through such approach Zawadzka, New approach emphasises close connection between the language and culture, combination of language and psychological skills including the awareness of the existence of various activities and communicative behaviours deriving from the membership in various cultural circles; ability to midzykultueowa and utilise the strategies of distinguishing midzykuoturowa meanings from the contexts and analysis of possible misunderstandings in communication, the ability to identify various communication styles, but most of all the readiness to empathize with culturally unfamiliar perspectives, in other words sociological and cultural sensitizing.
Characteristic features of intercultural approach to the realities and culture are: It is obvious that each of the mentioned ways of presentation of cultural and realistic issues regionalnz imprinted their mark on developed concepts and syllabi which transferred the theoretical assumptions to practical grounds.
In contemporary times, in the era of international communication, the issue of intercultural communication and its implication in a foreign language teaching process interested socio-linguists, sociologists ni,itorowicz educationalists specialising in nikitorowica languages.
It is quite new academic discipline, which was born in the United States of America, the most scientific midzy,ulturowa is being run in that country, while in Europe the interest in this issue increased after publishing Common European Framework of Reference for Languages by the Council of Europe in The issues connected with interculturalism are placed on an honourable spot.
The document distinguishes general language competence, which is composed of personal conditioning savoir- tre individual traits of midzykulturwa person, their character, attitudes, motivation, system of values; declarative knowledge savoir – knowledge deriving from life experiences and school education, knowledge about the world, sociocultural awareness and sensitivity; procedural knowledge savoir-faire – ability to use the possessed declarative knowledge, life, social, professional nikitorowjcz intercultural skills; the ability to learn savoir-apprendre – communicative and linguistic sensitivity and general sensitivity and phonetic skills, learning techniques and heuristic skills.
And linguistic communication competence which is composed of the following components: In Poland 10, the interest in the problems of teaching realities and culture in relation to both foreign language and Polish as a foreign language started as late as in thewhen communicative approach appeared, and the discussion on the culture studies in teaching foreign languages 11 started which has been going on until present day, however, the first symposium dedicated to the role and place of culture studies in foreign language teaching 10 Social and cultural aspects of teaching foreign languages in glottodidactics on the example of chosen countries are discussed edukacjw Banach, The culture studies in teaching foreign languages see: Conveying the information concerning the history, culture and tradition of a given language area to the foreigners has almost always been a the part of the process of teaching this language, however, in the earlier methodological essays and course books, the issues concerning realities and culture were not present in the same degree and way as can be seen from mid s.
These problems were discussed in the widest manner on national Polish conference Didactics of foreign languages versus cultural competence and intercultural communication. The conference resulted in the publication bearing the same title, which was edited by Mackiewicz. As we can read in the introduction: Conviction of the fundamental meaning of thinking in intercultural categories in the process of foreign language teaching as well as of the role of socio-cultural competence for both teachers and students is common mifzykulturowa many papers.
Widely accepted demand of intercultural approach in glottodidactics is often confronted with dull reality, where intercultural content is, more often than not, sidetracked or not present at all.
Foreign languages courses are just the place for intercultural meetings. Presentation of cultural standards of the countries of given target language or even referring to stereotypes relating to these countries and nations often lead to reflection upon one s own culture, correction of the attitudes and behaviours and regoinalna to minimize the tensions in contacts with representatives of a different culture, that is to shaping intercultural competence.
The content of all the articles and papers clearly points out the necessity to tie practical teaching of a foreign language with the issues including such subjects as history of edukwcja countries of given language area, history of literature and culture of those countries, phenomena of folklore, customs and traditions, nikitorowjcz well as socio-cultural and socio-linguistic issues, for as Mazur The latter may originate not from the content of the message itself, but rather from its interpretation caused, for example, by the difference in custom and moral norms, hence the necessity to introduce the students to basic elements of the knowledge about Polish culture and society.
Results The key elements of intercultural competence which has become one of main goals of language educations are thought to be: This knowledge consists of such groups as: Discussion Development of already mentioned intercultural competence is closely connected jikitorowicz given stages of teaching a language, since omitting specific cultural norms by a foreigner uttering a communicate containing many language mistakes will be nikitoroqicz by the native speaker with understanding, whereas the ability of fluent and correct usage of a language is also connected with the expectation of adequately better knowledge of a foreign culture.
Choice of the subjects and content of the syllabus at the basic level should enable the students to communicate efficiently in daily situations as well as expressing basic communicative intentions, which is why it is necessary midzykilturowa convey the information about the most important socio-cultural conventions used in communication in a given language. Having finished the course on A level, the students should have no major difficulties in taking part in social conversations and form their utterances in such a way that they are midsykulturowa for other interlocutors linguistically and socio-culturally in the range of verbal contact and social rites.
People starting a language course should also be aware of the basic facts nikitoroeicz the knowledge about the countries of a given language area which facilitate them functioning in those countries and will make them able to undertake the attempt of understanding the ways of behaviour of the natives.
They can formulate questions concerning private life, midzykuturowa example about place where people live, people they know and things they possess and is able to answer the questions of such types. They are able to introduce themselves and others. They are able to participate in a simple conversation under the condition that the interlocutor speaks slowly and clearly and is willing midzykulfurowa help.
A2 Person using the language on this level understands utterances and frequently used expressions concerning everyday living. They are able to communicate in routine, simple communication situations requiring only direct exchange of statements on known and typical subjects.
They can describe their origin and environment they are living in, and bring up the subjects connected with the most basic needs of everyday life. Person using the edukkacja on this level is able to enter into basic social relations using polite expressions such as greetings and farewell phrases, nikitofowicz phrases and expressions such as please, thank you, I m sorry.
Person using the language on this level is able to understand and simply express basic language functions such as obtaining and exchange of information, expressing views and midzykultyrowa.
They are able to participate in social conversations in simple yet efficient way, using the most popular expressions and conversation patterns.
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They are able to manage themselves in very short social conversations using midzykultkrowa polite greeting and addressative expressions. They are able to formulate invitations, propositions or requests for forgiveness etc. Language fluency level and socio-linguistic propriety level A. Graduates of B level courses should be able to use the foreign language fluently and spontaneously, in the way allowing them to communicate freely with native speakers.
From regional to intercultural education in Polish kindergartens | Barbara Surma –
They should be able to differentiate and use the right variation formal or informal of the language in accordance to the situation, as well as regkonalna the majority of socio-cultural conventions used in communication in a given language including verbal and non-verbal contact and social rituals. Presentation of the knowledge about the countries of a given language area should be complemented with elements comparable with Polish culture.
Level Language fluency level Socio-linguistic propriety B1 Person using the language on this level understands the meaning of the main woof of the message contained in clear, standard utterances which concern known issues and events typical for work, school, leisure, etc. Person using language on this level is able to express and understand a wide range of language function using the most common forms of their expression in neutral register of the utterance.
They are aware nikitorowiicz the most They can manage themselves eduiacja most important polite conventions and able to act communication situations which can happen accordingly. They are aware and can look for when travelling to the region where nikitogowicz the signs of the most crucial differences language is spoken. They are able to build simple and coherent spoken or written forms between their own and foreign society as far as customs, traditions, stances, beliefs and values on the subjects which are known regoonalna them are concerned.
They can describe their experiences, events, hopes, dreams and plans, justifying or explaining them in a simple manner. They are able to use the language so fluently and spontaneously to run a normal conversation with a native speaker. They are able to formulate clear and detailed oral or written utterances and explain their views on issues being the subject of the discussion considering pros midzykuturowa cons of different solutions.
Person using the language on this level can express themselves in convincing, clear and polite way using formal or informal register of the utterance according to the situation and interlocutor.
They are able to participate actively in the group discussion, even if the conversation is quick and colloquial. They are able niiitorowicz run a conversation with native speakers without amusing or irritating them unintentionally.
They are able to express themselves adequately to situation and avoid blatant mistakes. Language fluency level and socio-linguistic propriety level B. Midzykulthrowa graduates of C level courses should be able to use the language fluently and spontaneously in all the communicative situations with midzykulturowx speakers. They should be able to differentiate the shades of meaning and use the variation of language which is appropriate to the situation, what should be facilitated by the knowledge of idioms and slang expressions.
During the course on such a level, the students should learn socio-cultural conventions used in a given language including verbal and non-verbal contact, social rituals; they should also possess a substantial knowledge about the countries of a given language area.
Level Language fluency level Socio-linguistic propriety C1 Person using the language on this level understands wide range of difficult, lengthy text and is able to see hidden meanings expressed indirectly. They are able to form fluent, spontaneous utterances quite easily finding the right expressions. They can easily and efficiently use the language in social, public, educational or professional contacts.
They are able to form well-built, detailed oral or written forms concerning complex problems, properly and ably using the rules of the organisation of the utterance, and indicators of conjunction of the text. C2 Person using the language on this level can easily understand practically everything they hear or read.
They can abridge the information originating from different sources written or spoken coherently reporting the theses and explanations they contain. They are able to express their thoughts in midzykukturowa fluent, spontaneous and precise manner, subtly differentiating meaning shades even in the most complex utterances. Person using the language on this level can identify in a wide range idiomatic and colloquial expressions, noticing the changes of the register of the utterance, however, from time to time they need to make sure about some details, especially when they are dealing with unknown accent.
They are able to understand the language of the films, including slang and idiomatic expressions.
They are able to use the language in social situations in an efficient and flexible way, including allusive, emotional and humorous usage of the Person using the language on this level shows good command of idiomatic and colloquial expressions and is aware of connoted meanings.
They are able to fully notice sociolinguistic and socio-cultural implications accompanying the utterances of native speakers and are able to react properly.
They are able to act as a go-between in communication with the representatives of their own edulacja foreign society, considering socio-cultural and sociolinguistic differences. Omitting culture and reality elements or elements conditioned by reality and culture in the nikitoroicz acquisition process can contribute to the hindrance of communication and adaptation of new cultural codes, or even cause the phenomenon of so called cultural shock in the student.
Hence the necessity of introducing lexical material marked culturally from the first level of teaching and gradual deepening of the Copyright The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-learning Certainly, intercultural competence is essential supplementation of the goals of language education nikitlrowicz general, including Polish taught to foreigners; its development favours fuller realisation of the superior objective of this education which is communication competence.
Conclusions To sum up, it is worth to cite the theses on the role of culture studies in teaching foreign languages. Firstly, the contribution to peaceful coexistence wdukacja people. Secondly, the sensitization and development of the ability to deal with unfamiliar cultures through the assessment, relativisation and presentation in juxtapose with the reality of those who learn about culturally unfamiliar phenomena and not by conveying information and plain facts, because rebionalna such a way only will they be shown and prejudices and stereotypes removed, while tolerance will be supported.
Finally the lecturers should be the ambassadors of the region of a given language through their own midzykuulturowa and proper choice of didactic material, good education and participation in professional development courses.